Found this very hard, but got there in the end.
Encourage doctor having trouble in city (6) = FOSTER
Dr Foster went to Gloucester….
German graduate different, wasting time (8) = BAVARIAN
graduate = BA, different VARIANT, wasting time = remove T
Nervous? Extremely after answer given to question (7) = QUAVERY
extremely = VERY, question = QU, answer = A
Socialist prejudice all but admitted by enthusiast (6) = FABIAN
entusiast = FAN, prejudice = BIAS, all but = remove last letter
Religeous adherent is a plain girl from what we hear? (4) = JAIN
from what we hear = h. plain Jane h. JAIN